前言

Android技术如今已很成熟了,组件化、插件化、热修复等等框架层出不穷,如果只停留在单纯的会用框架上,技术永远得不到成长,只有懂得其原理,能够婉婉道来,能够自己手动写出,技术才会得到成长,与其焦虑未来,不如把握现在。本篇将手写教大家写出插件化框架,插件化技术是Android高级工程师必备的技术之一,懂其思想,知其原理。本篇专题将由10篇文章来详细的讲解插件化技术,深耕一个技术领域,才能懂得如何更广阔的横向发展。

本专题代码地址

在上一篇文章中,我们实现了,如何启动一个插件,和启动插件内的Activity和Service.

我们再来回顾一下如何启动一个插件:

  1. 首先,我们要明白一个插件是没有安装到手机上的,所以我们需要将上下文(Context)传递到插件中,插件用到上下文到方法需要复写.
  2. 启动插件到一个Activity(注意插件中的Activity必须是launchMode=”standard”,我们会在后续解决这个问题),其实就是启动宿主(app)中的一个空壳的Activity(ProxyActivity),然后通过DexClassLoader加载apk,拿到Activity的全类名,然后反射拿到Activity实例,强转为PluginInterfaceActivity(插件Activity实现的接口).通过接口将生命周期传递给插件.
  3. 启动插件的Service也是同样的道理.

做完本章能达到什么效果呢?

1545909862509.gif

本篇文章我们来实现广播插件.广播主要分两种,一种动态广播,一种静态广播.

插件中动态广播的实现:

启动插件中的动态广播其实和启动Activity和Service是一样的流程.

首先我们需要在通用库中新建一个接口,插件中的广播都要实现此接口

public interface PluginInterfaceBroadcast {
    void attach(Context context);

    void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent);
}

然后在BaseActivity中重写registerReceiversendBroadcastunregisterReceiver,因为这两个方法都用到了上下文(Context),我们需要用宿主(app)的Context来注册和发送广播.代码如下:

@Override
    public Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter) {
        if (mActivity != null) {
            return mActivity.registerReceiver(receiver, filter);
        }
        return super.registerReceiver(receiver, filter);
    }

    @Override
    public void sendBroadcast(Intent intent) {
        if (null != mActivity) {
            mActivity.sendBroadcast(intent);
        } else {
            super.sendBroadcast(intent);
        }
    }
    @Override
    public void unregisterReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver) {
        if (null != mActivity) {
            mActivity.unregisterReceiver(receiver);
        } else {
            super.unregisterReceiver(receiver);
        }
    }

上述代码其实是,调用了宿主(app)的方法,其实就是启动了宿主定义好的的一个空壳的广播,然后通过DexClassLoader反射插件中的广播类,然后通过继承的接口,来进行方法的调用和参数的传递.

public class ProxyBroadcast extends BroadcastReceiver {
    private String className;

    private PluginInterfaceBroadcast bordcast;

    private static final String TAG = "ProxyBroadcast";

    public ProxyBroadcast(String name, Context context) {
        this.className = name;
        Class loadClass = null;
        try {
            loadClass = PluginManager.getInstance().getClassLoader().loadClass(className);
            Constructor constructor = loadClass.getConstructor(new Class[]{});
            bordcast = (PluginInterfaceBroadcast) constructor.newInstance(new Object[]{});
            bordcast.attach(context);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    //class --- object --- p
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        Log.e(TAG, "ProxyBroadcast onReceive: ");
        if (bordcast != null) {
            bordcast.onReceive(context, intent);
        }
    }
}

同理,在宿主方法中需要做一些处理,new ProxyBroadcast 然后注册此广播,实际上就是注册了宿主的空壳的一个广播:

 private List<ProxyBroadcast> proxyBroadcastList = new ArrayList<>();

    @Override
    public Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter) {
        //重写真正注册的是ProxyBroadcast 转发
        IntentFilter filter1 = new IntentFilter();
        for (int i = 0; i < filter.countActions(); i++) {
            filter1.addAction(filter.getAction(i));
            Log.e(TAG, "sendBroadcast: 注册插件的广播 -> " + filter1.getAction(i));
        }
        ProxyBroadcast proxyBroadcast = new ProxyBroadcast(receiver.getClass().getName(), this);
        proxyBroadcastList.add(proxyBroadcast);
        return super.registerReceiver(proxyBroadcast, filter1);
    }

    @Override
    public void unregisterReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver) {
        if (proxyBroadcastList != null && proxyBroadcastList.size() > 0) {
            for (ProxyBroadcast proxyBroadcast : proxyBroadcastList) {
                if (proxyBroadcast.getClass().getName().equals(receiver.getClass().getName())) {
                    super.unregisterReceiver(proxyBroadcast);
                }
            }
        } else {
            super.unregisterReceiver(receiver);
        }
    }

我们来看一个插件中的广播实现,通过继承PluginInterfaceBroadcast,宿主调用接口的方法:

public class MyReceive extends BroadcastReceiver implements PluginInterfaceBroadcast {
    @Override
    public void attach(Context context) {
        Toast.makeText(context, "注册广播成功", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }

    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        Toast.makeText(context, "接收广播成功", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }
}

OK,这样我们就实现了,插件动态广播的实现,非常简单,几乎没有什么难点,接下来我们来看插件静态广播如何实现?

插件静态广播实现原理:

我们知道任何插件都是没有安装到手机上的,静态广播是注册在AndroidManifest中,那么,我们就不能通过上述那样轻松的拿到类名进行反射了,如下代码

 <receiver android:name=".StaticBroadcastReceiver">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="com.prim.plugin.a" />
            </intent-filter>
        </receiver>

需要通过PMS来解析xml,拿到在xml注册的类名,和intent-filter,然后如上述动态广播一样,宿主动态注册插件中的静态广播,以达到这样的效果.实际上宿主就是做了动态注册静态广播,天马行空的想象.

APK安装时做了什么呢?

  1. 安装时把apk文件复制到data/app目录下
  2. 开辟存放应用文件的数据data/data/包名
  3. 将apk中的dex文件安装到data/dalvik-cache目录下(dex文件是dalvik虚拟机的可执行文件,其大小约为原始apk文件大小的四分之一)

apk安装时并有做很多操作,那么它是如何真正的加载静态广播呢? 真正的加载广播,是发生在系统启动时,
系统启动可以理解成 将所有app重新安装一遍到系统中,会重复上述过程.

PMS安装APK原理

为了方便阅读,我已经将PackageManagerService 和PackageParser的源码放到了代码中,结合起来阅读本文更容易理解.

PMS 全称(PackageManagerService) ,当安装apk时会调用PackageManagerService的main方法

 public static final PackageManagerService main(Context context, Installer installer,
            boolean factoryTest, boolean onlyCore) {
        PackageManagerService m = new PackageManagerService(context, installer,
                factoryTest, onlyCore);
        ServiceManager.addService("package", m);
        return m;
    }

很显然上述代码,new PackageManagerService,我们接着看PackageManagerService的构造方法.然后我们可以看到data app 这样创建的目录,着重关注mAppInstallDir,字面意思就是app的安装路径

public PackageManagerService(Context context, Installer installer,
            boolean factoryTest, boolean onlyCore) {
            .....
            synchronized (mPackages) {
            mHandlerThread = new ServiceThread(TAG,
                    Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND, true /*allowIo*/);
            mHandlerThread.start();
            mHandler = new PackageHandler(mHandlerThread.getLooper());
            Watchdog.getInstance().addThread(mHandler, WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT);
            //TODO
            File dataDir = Environment.getDataDirectory();
            mAppDataDir = new File(dataDir, "data");
            mAppInstallDir = new File(dataDir, "app");
            mAppLib32InstallDir = new File(dataDir, "app-lib");
            mAsecInternalPath = new File(dataDir, "app-asec").getPath();
            mUserAppDataDir = new File(dataDir, "user");
            mDrmAppPrivateInstallDir = new File(dataDir, "app-private");
            ......
             if (!mOnlyCore) {
                EventLog.writeEvent(EventLogTags.BOOT_PROGRESS_PMS_DATA_SCAN_START,
                        SystemClock.uptimeMillis());
                scanDirLI(mAppInstallDir, 0, scanFlags, 0);

                scanDirLI(mDrmAppPrivateInstallDir, PackageParser.PARSE_FORWARD_LOCK,
                        scanFlags, 0);
                        .....
                        }
            }

接着会调用scanDirLI去扫面apk文件,点击去看一下它做了什么? 内部有调用scanPackageLI方法.

private void scanDirLI(File dir, int parseFlags, int scanFlags, long currentTime) {
for (File file : files) {
            final boolean isPackage = (isApkFile(file) || file.isDirectory())
                    && !PackageInstallerService.isStageName(file.getName());
            if (!isPackage) {
                // Ignore entries which are not packages
                continue;
            }
            try {
                scanPackageLI(file, parseFlags | PackageParser.PARSE_MUST_BE_APK,
                        scanFlags, currentTime, null);
            } catch (PackageManagerException e) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "Failed to parse " + file + ": " + e.getMessage());

                // Delete invalid userdata apps
                if ((parseFlags & PackageParser.PARSE_IS_SYSTEM) == 0 &&
                        e.error == PackageManager.INSTALL_FAILED_INVALID_APK) {
                    logCriticalInfo(Log.WARN, "Deleting invalid package at " + file);
                    if (file.isDirectory()) {
                        FileUtils.deleteContents(file);
                    }
                    file.delete();
                }
            }
        }
        }

接着点scanPackageLI,从字面意思上看是解析包,我们看看它做了什么?返回了一个Package,这个Package是不是我们想要的呢?

 private PackageParser.Package scanPackageLI(File scanFile, int parseFlags, int scanFlags,
            long currentTime, UserHandle user) throws PackageManagerException {
....
        final PackageParser.Package pkg;
        try {
            pkg = pp.parsePackage(scanFile, parseFlags);
        } catch (PackageParserException e) {
            throw PackageManagerException.from(e);
        }

        .....
        }

看一下Package 里面有什么? 很显然它是我们想要的Package存放的就是AndroidManifest.xml 注册的四大组件.

 public final static class Package {
 ....
        public final ArrayList<Activity> activities = new ArrayList<Activity>(0);
        public final ArrayList<Activity> receivers = new ArrayList<Activity>(0);
        public final ArrayList<Provider> providers = new ArrayList<Provider>(0);
        public final ArrayList<Service> services = new ArrayList<Service>(0);
        ......
        }

注意这里的Activity不是四大组件的Activity而是PackageParser的一个内部类,activity 与receivers 在 AndroidManifest里面属性都差不多一样,很显然Google复用了Activity.

我们看一下Activity里面存放了什么?

  public final static class Activity extends Component<ActivityIntentInfo> {
        public final ActivityInfo info;

        public Activity(final ParseComponentArgs args, final ActivityInfo _info) {
            super(args, _info);
            info = _info;
            info.applicationInfo = args.owner.applicationInfo;
        }

        public void setPackageName(String packageName) {
            super.setPackageName(packageName);
            info.packageName = packageName;
        }

       .......
    }

Activity中只存放了ActivityInfo,继续点进去ActivityInfo中是否有我们想要的类名等信息

ActivityInfo extends ComponentInfo 
ComponentInfo extends PackageItemInfo
/**
     * Public name of this item. From the "android:name" attribute.
     */
    public String name;

PackageItemInfo中找到了这样的一个属性,终于找到了我们想要的类名了.只要我们拿到ActivityInfo就可以拿到类名

<receiver android:name=".StaticBroadcastReceiver">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="com.prim.plugin.a" />
            </intent-filter>
        </receiver>

但是还忽略了一点,intent-filter 还没有找到,从代码中看

final static class Activity extends Component<ActivityIntentInfo>

 public static class Component<II extends IntentInfo> {
        public final Package owner;
        public final ArrayList<II> intents;
        public final String className;
        public Bundle metaData;
        }

ArrayList intents 看起来像是intent-filter,II泛型 –》 IntentInfo

 public static class IntentInfo extends IntentFilter {
        public boolean hasDefault;
        public int labelRes;
        public CharSequence nonLocalizedLabel;
        public int icon;
        public int logo;
        public int banner;
        public int preferred;
    }

可以看到IntentInfo 继承 IntentFilter,找到了IntentFilter.

中途总结

从上述代码中,我们可以知道通过,parsePackage解析包,得到Package,就可以拿到AndroidManifeast的信息.

PackageParser pp = new PackageParser();

final PackageParser.Package pkg;
//解析apk 得到pkg
pkg = pp.parsePackage(scanFile, parseFlags);

但是很不幸的是,Google将这个类写成了@hide 隐藏的API那我们就只能通过反射去获取了,感觉瞬间蛋疼了.

image.png

没办法,就只能硬来咯

首先我们实例化PackageParser然后调用parsePackage得到Package

 //反射获取解析apk包的类
            Class packageParserClass = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageParser");
            //获取方法
            Method parsePackage = packageParserClass.getDeclaredMethod("parsePackage",
                    File.class, int.class);
            //实例化PackageParser类
            Object packageParser = packageParserClass.newInstance();
            //Package 得到
            Object packageObj = parsePackage.invoke(packageParser, new File(absolutePath), PackageManager.GET_ACTIVITIES);
            //拿到注册的静态广播

然后通过Package拿到xml注册的静态广播

//拿到注册的静态广播
            Field receiversField = packageObj.getClass().getDeclaredField("receivers");
            //获取List<Activity>
            List receivers = (List) receiversField.get(packageObj);

然后循环Activity,拿到类名和intent-fliter

//循环receivers
            for (Object activity : receivers) {
                //拿到ActivityInfo
                ActivityInfo info = (ActivityInfo) generateReceiverInfo.invoke(packageParser, activity, 0, defaltUserState, userId);
                //根据ActivityInfo,拿到BroadCastReceiver
                BroadcastReceiver broadcastReceiver = (BroadcastReceiver) classLoader.loadClass(info.name).newInstance();
                //拿到intentFilter
                List<? extends IntentFilter> intentFilters = (List<? extends IntentFilter>) intentsField.get(activity);
                for (IntentFilter filter : intentFilters) {
                    //动态注册插件中的静态广播
                    context.registerReceiver(broadcastReceiver, filter);
                }
            }

这样看起来,实现思路很简单啊,一脸的懵逼啊.

image.png

SystemService -> main

->scanDirLI 扫描apk的文件 –》scanPackageLI 解析apk PackageParser -> parsePackage get Package (一个apk对应一个package)
-> parseBaseApk loadApkIntoAssetManager -> parseBaseApk -> parseBaseApplication -> parseActivity -> parseIntent

核心完整代码如下:

/**
     * 解析xml静态注册的广播
     *
     * @param context
     * @param absolutePath
     */
    private void parserReceive(Context context, String absolutePath) {
        try {
            //反射获取解析apk包的类
            Class packageParserClass = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageParser");
            //获取方法
            Method parsePackage = packageParserClass.getDeclaredMethod("parsePackage",
                    File.class, int.class);
            //实例化PackageParser类
            Object packageParser = packageParserClass.newInstance();
            //Package 得到
            Object packageObj = parsePackage.invoke(packageParser, new File(absolutePath), PackageManager.GET_ACTIVITIES);
            //拿到注册的静态广播
            Field receiversField = packageObj.getClass().getDeclaredField("receivers");
            //获取List<Activity>
            List receivers = (List) receiversField.get(packageObj);
            //public final static class Activity extends Component<ActivityIntentInfo>
            //获取Component
            Class<?> componentClass = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageParser$Component");
            //获取intents
            Field intentsField = componentClass.getDeclaredField("intents");
            //generatePackageInfo(PackageParser.Package p,
            //            int gids[], int flags, long firstInstallTime, long lastUpdateTime,
            //            HashSet<String> grantedPermissions, PackageUserState state, int userId)


            // 调用generateActivityInfo 方法, 把PackageParser.Activity 转换成
            Class<?> packageParser$ActivityClass = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageParser$Activity");
            // generateActivityInfo方法
            Class<?> packageUserStateClass = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageUserState");
            Object defaltUserState = packageUserStateClass.newInstance();

            Method generateReceiverInfo = packageParserClass.getDeclaredMethod("generateActivityInfo",
                    packageParser$ActivityClass, int.class, packageUserStateClass, int.class);
            //获取userID
            Class<?> userHandler = Class.forName("android.os.UserHandle");
            Method getCallingUserIdMethod = userHandler.getDeclaredMethod("getCallingUserId");
            int userId = (int) getCallingUserIdMethod.invoke(null);

            //循环receivers
            for (Object activity : receivers) {
                //拿到ActivityInfo
                ActivityInfo info = (ActivityInfo) generateReceiverInfo.invoke(packageParser, activity, 0, defaltUserState, userId);
                //根据ActivityInfo,拿到BroadCastReceiver
                BroadcastReceiver broadcastReceiver = (BroadcastReceiver) classLoader.loadClass(info.name).newInstance();
                //拿到intentFilter
                List<? extends IntentFilter> intentFilters = (List<? extends IntentFilter>) intentsField.get(activity);
                for (IntentFilter filter : intentFilters) {
                    //动态注册插件中的静态广播
                    context.registerReceiver(broadcastReceiver, filter);
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

插件中的静态广播就不需要实现接口PluginInterfaceBroadcast

public class StaticBroadcastReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {

    private static final String ACTION = "com.prim.plugin.host";

    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        Toast.makeText(context, "我是插件,收到发送的广播,我将向宿主发送广播", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        //接收到广播,然后给宿主发送广播
        context.sendBroadcast(new Intent(ACTION));
    }
}